Geographical variation of arsenic distribution in paddy soil, rice and rice-based products: A meta-analytic approach and implications to human health

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of Environmental Management


Arsenic is considered as ubiquitous toxic element belonging to the highest health hazard category. Wide ranges of natural as well as anthropogenic activities are subject to create global arsenic distribution in the broad sense. Rice is the major staple food consumed by world's population on the maximum scale. Growing environment of rice typically attributed by geographical origin may influence on arsenic bioavailability in rice grain. Over exploitation of arsenic contaminated, groundwater resources have recognised as major concern in agricultural perspective for rice production. On the other hand, biogeochemical weathering of arsenic bearing rocks as the geogenic origin, mining activities and application arsenical pesticides are recognised to be well known factors responsible to increase the soil arsenic level. Transfer of arsenic into rice is rightly acquainted from these possible sources of contamination in different regions around the world. Consequently, such substantial geographical variation reflects bioavailability as well as speciation of arsenic in rice. In this manuscript, we discuss the contribution of different arsenic entering pathways in soil-rice systems from regional variability. Furthermore, we attempted to apply the meta-analysis in order to predict the comparative risk assessment on distribution pattern of total and inorganic arsenic in rice commercialised from various rice producing regions of Asia, Europe and US by considering a selected number of data set an extensive range of market basket and field survey. In addition, we finally focus on health risk assessment associated by the consumption of rice and rice-based infant products as the dietary intake from the different of origin. Furthermore, we must detect and categorize the possible source of contamination, which may critically enhance the bioavailability of arsenic in rice in order to minimize the risk. These are the major aspects reviewed here.

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