Thermodynamics and phase transition in Shapere–Wilczek fgh model: Cosmological time crystal in quadratic gravity
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
The Shapere–Wilczek model , or so called fgh model, enjoys the remarkable features of a Time Crystal (TC) that has a non-trivial time dependence in its lowest energy state (or the classical ground state). We construct a particular form of fgh model (with specified f,g,h functions) that is derived from a Mini-superspace version of a quadratic f(R,R μν ) gravity theory. Main part of the investigation deals with thermodynamic properties of such systems from classical statistical mechanics perspective. Our analysis reveals the possibility of a phase transition. Because of the higher (time) derivative nature of the model computation of the partial function is non-trivial and requires newly discovered techniques. We speculate about possible connection between our model and the Multiverse scenario.
Das, Praloy; Pan, Supriya; and Ghosh, Subir, "Thermodynamics and phase transition in Shapere–Wilczek fgh model: Cosmological time crystal in quadratic gravity" (2019). Journal Articles. 883.