Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Scientific Reports


The current investigation has identified the biomarkers associated with severity of disability and correlation among plethora of systemic, cellular and molecular parameters of intellectual disability (ID) in a rehabilitation home. The background of study lies with the recent clinical evidences which identified complications in ID. Various indicators from blood and peripheral system serve as potential surrogates for disability related changes in brain functions. ID subjects (Male, age 10 ± 5 yrs, N = 45) were classified as mild, moderate and severe according to the severity of disability using standard psychometric analysis. Clinical parameters including stress biomarkers, neurotransmitters, RBC morphology, expressions of inflammatory proteins and neurotrophic factor were estimated from PBMC, RBC and serum. The lipid peroxidation of PBMC and RBC membranes, levels of serum glutamate, serotonin, homocysteine, ROS, lactate and LDH-A expression increased significantly with severity of ID whereas changes in RBC membrane β-actin, serum BDNF, TNF-α and IL-6 was found non-significant. Structural abnormalities of RBC were more in severely disabled children compared to mildly affected ones. The oxidative stress remained a crucial factor with severity of disability. This is confirmed not only by RBC alterations but also with other cellular dysregulations. The present article extends unique insights of how severity of disability is correlated with various clinical, cellular and molecular markers of blood. This unique study primarily focuses on the strong predictors of severity of disability and their associations via brain-blood axis.



Publication Date



Open Access, Gold, Green