Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Environmental Research


To determine whether gait and balance dysfunction are present in young urbanites exposed to fine particular matter PM2.5 ≥ annual USEPA standard, we tested gait and balance with Tinetti and Berg tests in 575 clinically healthy subjects, age 21.0 ± 5.7 y who were residents in Metropolitan Mexico City, Villahermosa and Reynosa. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was also applied to an independent cohort n:76, age 23.3 ± 9.1 y. In the 575 cohort, 75.4% and 34.4% had abnormal total Tinetti and Berg scores and high risk of falls in 17.2% and 5.7% respectively. BMI impacted negatively Tinetti and Berg performance. Gait dysfunction worsen with age and males performed worse than females. Gait and balance dysfunction were associated with mild cognitive impairment MCI (19.73%) and dementia (55.26%) in 57/76 and 19 cognitively intact subjects had gait and balance dysfunction. Seventy-five percent of urbanites exposed to PM2.5 had gait and balance dysfunction. For MMC residents-with historical documented Alzheimer disease (AD) and CSF abnormalities, these findings suggest Alzheimer Continuum is in progress. Early development of a Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome ought to be considered in city dwellers with normal cognition and gait dysfunction. The AD research frame in PM2.5 exposed young urbanites should include gait and balance measurements. Multicity teens and young adult cohorts are warranted for quantitative gait and balance measurements and neuropsychological and brain imaging studies in high vs low PM2.5 exposures. Early identification of gait and balance impairment in young air pollution-exposed urbanites would facilitate multidisciplinary prevention efforts for modifying the course of AD.



Publication Date



Open Access, Bronze, Green