Selective Update of Relevant Eigenspaces for Integrative Clustering of Multimodal Data

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Research Article

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IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics


One of the major problems in cancer subtype discovery from multimodal omic data is that all the available modalities may not encode relevant and homogeneous information about the subtypes. Moreover, the high-dimensional nature of the modalities makes sample clustering computationally expensive. In this regard, a novel algorithm is proposed to extract a low-rank joint subspace of the integrated data matrix. The proposed algorithm first evaluates the quality of subtype information provided by each of the modalities, and then judiciously selects only relevant ones to construct the joint subspace. The problem of incrementally updating the singular value decomposition of a data matrix is formulated for the multimodal data framework. The analytical formulation enables efficient construction of the joint subspace of integrated data from low-rank subspaces of the individual modalities. The construction of joint subspace by the proposed method is shown to be computationally more efficient compared to performing the principal component analysis (PCA) on the integrated data matrix. Some new quantitative indices are introduced to measure theoretically the accuracy of subspace construction by the proposed approach with respect to the principal subspace extracted by the PCA. The efficacy of clustering on the joint subspace constructed by the proposed algorithm is established over existing integrative clustering approaches on several real-life multimodal cancer data sets.

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