The importance of accessory protein variants in the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2


Sk Sarif Hassan, Pingla Thana Mahavidyalaya
Pabitra Pal Choudhury, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata
Guy W. Dayhoff, University of South Florida, Tampa
Alaa A.A. Aljabali, Yarmouk University
Bruce D. Uhal, Michigan State University
Kenneth Lundstrom, PanTherapeutics
Nima Rezaei, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies
Damiano Pizzol, Italian Agency for Development Cooperation - Khartoum
Parise Adadi, University of Otago
Amos Lal, Mayo Clinic
Antonio Soares, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Adam M. Brufsky, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center
Gajendra Kumar Azad, Patna University
Samendra P. Sherchan, Tulane University
Wagner Baetas-da-Cruz, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Kazuo Takayama, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application
Ãngel Serrano-Aroca, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir
Gaurav Chauhan, Tecnológico de Monterrey
Giorgio Palu, Università degli Studi di Padova
Yogendra Kumar Mishra, University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg
Debmalya Barh, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB)
Raner Jośe Santana Silva, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz
Bruno Silva Andrade, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia
Vasco Azevedo, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Nicolas G. Bazan, LSUHSC Neuroscience Center
Elrashdy M. Redwan, King Abdulaz University
Murtaza Tambuwala, Ulster University
Vladimir N. Uversky, Morsani College of Medicine

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.



Publication Date



Open Access, Green

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