Cognitive frailty among community-dwelling rural elderly population of West Bengal in India

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Asian Journal of Psychiatry


Objectives: There has been growing interest in the links between physical frailty and cognitive impairment: both can increase the risk of emerging life-threatening health problems and are currently prominent within the global geriatric health agenda. A recent consensus proposes the idea of ‘cognitive frailty’ defined by the presence of both physical frailty and cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Present study is intended to determine the prevalence of cognitive frailty and its associated factors. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among the rural community-dwelling elderly population of West Bengal, India (n = 510), without diagnosed dementia at baseline. An Interview-based questionnaire was administered to obtain information on sociodemographic, physical and psychosocial characteristics. Study participants were categorized as non-cognitive impairment (NCI) and cognitive impairment (CI) by Bangla Adaptation of Mini-Mental State Exam (BMSE ≤ 25) scale, as non-physical frailty (NPF) and physical frailty (PF) using Modified Fried Frailty Phenotype (FP ≥ 3) scale, as robust (NPF + NCI), pre-cognitive frailty (NPF + CI or PF + NCI) and cognitive frailty (PF + CI). Results: The overall prevalence of cognitive frailty was 21.8%. In multinomial regression analysis, final model indicated that increasing age, being woman, out-of-wedlock, poor education and non-working sociodemographic status had significant association with cognitive frailty. Poor nutritional status, low health-related quality of life and depression are also prone among the cognitively frail participants. Conclusions: Present study allows us to understand complementary relationships between sociodemographic, physical, psychosocial characteristics and cognitive frailty. There is a dire need for multidimensional approach for providing appropriate and comprehensive geriatric health care for developing countries like India.



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