TDP-43 CSF Concentrations Increase Exponentially with Age in Metropolitan Mexico City Young Urbanites Highly Exposed to PM2.5 and Ultrafine Particles and Historically Showing Alzheimer and Parkinson’s Hallmarks. Brain TDP-43 Pathology in MMC Residents Is Associated with High Cisternal CSF TDP-43 Concentrations

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title



Environmental exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle matter (UFPM) are associated with overlapping Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) hallmark protein pathologies in young Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) urbanites. We measured CSF concentrations of TDP-43 in 194 urban residents, including 92 MMC children aged 10.2 ± 4.7 y exposed to PM2.5 levels above the USEPA annual standard and to high UFPM and 26 low pollution controls (11.5 ± 4.4 y); 43 MMC adults (42.3 ± 15.9 y) and 14 low pollution adult controls (33.1 ± 12.0 y); and 19 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients (52.4 ± 14.1 y). TDP-43 neuropathology and cisternal CSF data from 20 subjects—15 MMC (41.1 ± 18.9 y) and 5 low pollution controls (46 ± 16.01 y)—were included. CSF TDP-43 exponentially increased with age (p < 0.0001) and it was higher for MMC residents. TDP-43 cisternal CSF levels of 572 ± 208 pg/mL in 6/15 MMC autopsy cases forecasted TDP-43 in the olfactory bulb, medulla and pons, reticular formation and motor nuclei neurons. A 16 y old with TDP-43 cisternal levels of 1030 pg/mL exhibited TDP-43 pathology and all 15 MMC autopsy cases exhibited AD and PD hallmarks. Overlapping TDP-43, AD and PD pathologies start in childhood in urbanites with high exposures to PM2.5 and UFPM. Early, sustained exposures to PM air pollution represent a high risk for developing brains and MMC UFPM emissions sources ought to be clearly identified, regulated, monitored and controlled. Prevention of deadly neurologic diseases associated with air pollution ought to be a public health priority and preventive medicine is key.



Publication Date



Open Access, Gold, Green

This document is currently not available here.