Possible Association Between Polymorphisms in ESR1, COL1A2, BGLAP, SPARC, VDR, and MMP2 Genes and Dental Fluorosis in a Population from an Endemic Region of West Bengal

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Research Article

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Biological Trace Element Research


Dental fluorosis (DF) is the most prevalent form of fluorosis in India affecting millions of people all over the country. As estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2), bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGLAP), secreted protein acidic and cysteine-rich (SPARC), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) genes play critical roles in bone metabolism, bone formation, mineral metabolism, and mineralization, variants in these genes could influence susceptibility to DF. The present study was aimed at evaluating the association between 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the six candidate genes (namely, ESR1, COL1A2, BGLAP, SPARC, VDR, and MMP2) and DF among 132 individuals (case = 71 and control = 61) living in a fluoride endemic region of West Bengal, India. No statistically significant association with disease risk was found when the genotypes and allele frequencies of each of the 15 SNPs was analyzed individually using odd’s ratio with 95% confidence interval. “CC” and “AG” haplotypes of the COL1A2 gene showed a borderline association with DF. The present study is the first in India to use multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis for identifying gene–gene and gene–environment interactions in fluorosis. The biomarker of serum fluoride showed a significant association with the disease state among the 17 attributes (15 SNPs and 2 biomarkers of urine fluoride and serum fluoride) (P value = 0.011). The best model of MDR analysis with maximized testing accuracy involved two SNPs from the ESR1 gene (rs9340799 and rs2077647) and one SNP from BGLAP gene (rs1543294) (P value < 0.0001).

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