DNA methylome in pancreatic cancer identified novel promoter hyper-methylation in NPY and FAIM2 genes associated with poor prognosis in Indian patient cohort

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Cancer Cell International


Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide and has a poor survival, with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.5%. In this study we investigated altered DNA methylation associated with PDAC severity and prognosis. Methods: Methylome data, generated using 450 K bead array, was compared between paired PDAC and normal samples in the TCGA cohort (n = 9) and our Indian cohort (n = 7). The total Indian Cohort (n = 75) was split into cohort 1 (n = 7), cohort 2 (n = 22), cohort 3 (n = 26) and cohort 4 (n = 20).Validation of differential methylation (6 selected CpG loci) and associated gene expression for differentially methylated genes (10 selected gDMs) were carried out in separate validation cohorts, using MSP, RT-PCR and IHC correlations between methylation and gene expression were observed in TCGA, GTEx cohorts and in validation cohorts. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was done to study differential prognosis, during 2–5 years of follow-up. Results: We identified 156 DMPs, mapped to 91 genes (gDMs), in PDAC; 68 (43.5%) DMPs were found to be differentially methylated both in TCGA cohort and our cohort, with significant concordance at hypo- and hyper-methylated loci. Enrichments of “regulation of ion transport”, “Interferon alpha/beta signalling”, “morphogenesis and development” and “transcriptional dysregulation” pathways were observed among 91 gDMs. Hyper-methylation of NPY and FAIM2 genes with down-regulated expression in PDAC, were significantly associated with poor prognosis in the Indian patient cohort. Conclusions: Ethnic variations among populations may determine the altered epigenetic landscape in the PDAC patients of the Indian cohort. Our study identified novel differentially methylated genes (mainly NPY and FAIM2) and also validated the previously identified differentially methylated CpG sites associated with PDAC cancer patient’s survival. Comparative analysis of our data with TCGA and CPTAC cohorts showed that both NPY and FAIM2 hyper-methylation and down-regulations can be novel epigenetically regulated genes in the Indian patient population, statistically significantly associated with poor survival and advanced tumour stages.



Publication Date



Open Access, Gold, Green

This document is currently not available here.