Observing biases in the state: case studies with Trivium and Trivia-SC

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Designs, Codes, and Cryptography


One generic model of stream cipher considers updating the states and then combining the state bits to produce the key-stream. In case there are biases in the state bits, that may be reflected on the key-stream bits resulting certain weaknesses (distinguisher and/or key recovery) of the cipher. In this context, we study the state biases as well as key-stream biases with great details. We first experiment with cube testers and heuristically obtain several distinguishers for Trivium running more than 800 rounds (maximum 829) with cube sizes not exceeding 27. Further, we apply our techniques to analyze Trivia-SC (the stream cipher used in TriviA-ck AEAD scheme, selected in second round of CAESAR competition) and obtain distinguishers till 950 rounds with a cube size of 25 only. On Trivia-SC, our results refute certain claims made by the designers against both cube and slide attacks. Our detailed empirical analysis provides new results in reduced-round cryptanalysis of Trivium and Trivia-SC.

First Page


Last Page




Publication Date


This document is currently not available here.