Turbulent flow characteristics over forward-facing obstacle

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of Turbulence


The local flow field and wake region over a forward-facing obstacle were experimentally investigated, when the water surface above the obstacle was dipped compared to flow further upstream and further downstream. The obstacle was modelled resembling the shape of an airfoil with a flat top having stoss-side slope (Formula presented.) and downstream lee-side slope (Formula presented.) designed for minimal flow separation. The submerged obstacle showed an evolutionary change in the flow field with a dipped water surface shape over the crest; and consequently three distinct flow regions were observed: upstream region, crest region and the downstream. The velocity data were recorded using a three-dimensional micro-acoustic Doppler velocimeter along the flume centreline for three flow Reynolds numbers and different localised Froude numbers. The paper highlights the flow and turbulence prime parameters: second-order statistics, turbulence kinetic energy, eddy viscosity, turbulence production, probability-density functions and the contributions of stress fraction into four quadrants to the total shear stress along the flow. The spectral analysis was performed to examine the energy distributions, vortex-shedding frequencies with corresponding Strouhal numbers. Variations of turbulence integral length scale along the flow passing over the obstacle were investigated to examine the eddy turnover scales. The turbulent features were fairly inspiring since it led to a pronounced acceleration on the crest location like a jet with a potential core region, and elongated deflection in the downside slope. The results provide a basic turbulence in natural environment for various phases of ebb and tide over a submerged smooth obstacle or mountain hills in river/ocean.

First Page


Last Page




Publication Date


This document is currently not available here.