A common parametrization for finite mode Gaussian states, their symmetries, and associated contractions with some applications

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of Mathematical Physics


Let Γ(H) be the boson Fock space over a finite dimensional Hilbert space H. It is shown that every Gaussian symmetry admits a Klauder-Bargmann integral representation in terms of coherent states. Furthermore, Gaussian states, Gaussian symmetries, and second quantization contractions belong to a weakly closed self-adjoint semigroup E2(H) of bounded operators in Γ(H). This yields a common parametrization for these operators. It is shown that the new parametrization for Gaussian states is a fruitful alternative to the customary parametrization by position-momentum mean vectors and covariance matrices. This leads to a rich harvest of corollaries: (i) every Gaussian state ρ admits a factorization ρ=Z1†Z1, where Z1 is an element of E2(H) and has the form Z1=cΓ(P)expΣr=1nλrar+Σr,s=1nαrsaras on the dense linear manifold generated by all exponential vectors, where c is a positive scalar, Γ(P) is the second quantization of a positive contractive operator P in H, ar, 1 ≤ r ≤ n, are the annihilation operators corresponding to the n different modes in Γ(H), λr∈C, and [αrs] is a symmetric matrix in Mn(C); (ii) an explicit particle basis expansion of an arbitrary mean zero pure Gaussian state vector along with a density matrix formula for a general Gaussian state in terms of its E2(H)-parameters; (iii) a class of examples of pure n-mode Gaussian states that are completely entangled; (iv) tomography of an unknown Gaussian state in Γ(Cn) by the estimation of its E2(Cn) parameters using O(n2) measurements with a finite number of outcomes.



Publication Date



Open Access, Green

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