Impact of water regimes and amendments on inorganic arsenic exposure to rice

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health


Rice-based diet faces an important public health concern due to arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain, which is toxic to humans. Rice crops are prone to assimilate As due to continuously flooded cultivation. In this study, the objective was to determine how water regimes (flooded and aerobic) in rice cultivation impact total As and inorganic As speciation in rice on the basis of a fieldscale trial in the post-monsoon season. Iron and silicon with NPK/organic manure were amended in each regime. We hypothesised that aerobic practice receiving amendments would reduce As uptake in rice grain with a subsequent decrease in accumulation of inorganic As species relative to flooded conditions (control). Continuously flooded conditions enhanced soil As availability by 32% compared to aerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, total As concentrations in rice decreased by 62% compared to flooded conditions. Speciation analyses revealed that aerobic conditions significantly reduced (p < 0.05) arsenite (68%) and arsenate (61%) accumulation in rice grains. Iron and silicon exhibited significant impact on reducing arsenate and arsenite uptake in rice, respectively. The study indicates that aerobic rice cultivation with minimum use of irrigation water can lead to lower risk of inorganic As exposure to rice relative to flooded practice.



Publication Date



Open Access, Gold, Green

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