Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Promising Antiviral Agents to Combat COVID-19 in the Microbial-Resistant Era
Therapeutic options for the highly pathogenic human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the current pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed. COVID-19 is associated with viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The proposed treatments for COVID-19 have shown little or no effect in the clinic so far. Additionally, bacterial and fungal pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2-mediated pneumonia disease complex. The antibiotic resistance in pneumonia treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs), such as fullerene, carbon dots, graphene, and their derivatives constitute a promising alternative due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and capacity to induce tissue regeneration. Furthermore, the antimicrobial mode of action is mainly physical (e.g., membrane distortion), characterized by a low risk of antimicrobial resistance. In this Review, we evaluated the literature on the antiviral activity and broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties of CBNs. CBNs had antiviral activity against 13 enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. CBNs with low or no toxicity to humans are promising therapeutics against the COVID-19 pneumonia complex with other viruses, bacteria, and fungi, including those that are multidrug-resistant.
Serrano-Aroca, Ángel; Takayama, Kazuo; Tuñón-Molina, Alberto; Seyran, Murat; Hassan, Sk Sarif; Pal Choudhury, Pabitra; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Lundstrom, Kenneth; Adadi, Parise; Palù, Giorgio; Aljabali, Alaa A.A.; Chauhan, Gaurav; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Tambuwala, Murtaza M.; Lal, Amos; Abd El-Aziz, Tarek Mohamed; Sherchan, Samendra; Barh, Debmalya; Redwan, Elrashdy M.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Uhal, Bruce D.; and Brufsky, Adam, "Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Promising Antiviral Agents to Combat COVID-19 in the Microbial-Resistant Era" (2021). Journal Articles. 1966.
Open Access, Green