Limiting value of the Kolkata index for social inequality and a possible social constant

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications


Based on some analytic structural properties of the Gini and Kolkata indices for social inequality, as obtained from a generic form of the Lorenz function, we make a conjecture that the limiting (effective saturation) value of the above-mentioned indices is about 0.865. This, together with some more new observations on the citation statistics of individual authors (including Nobel laureates), suggests that about 14% of people or papers or social conflicts tend to earn or attract or cause about 86% of wealth or citations or deaths respectively in very competitive situations in markets, universities or wars. This is a modified form of the (more than a) century old 80−20 law of Pareto in economy (not visible today because of various welfare and other strategies) and gives an universal value (0.86) of social (inequality) constant or number.



Publication Date



Open Access, Green

This document is currently not available here.