Structure of passive states and its implication in charging quantum batteries

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Physical Review E


In this article, in addition to the characterization of geometrical state spaces for the passive states, an operational approach has been introduced to distinguish them on their charging capabilities of a quantum battery. Unlike the thermal states, the structural instability of passive states assures the existence of a natural number n, for which n+1 copies of the state can charge a quantum battery while n copies cannot. This phenomenon can be presented in an n copy resource-theoretic approach, for which the free states are unable to charge the battery in n copies. Here we have exhibited the single copy scenario explicitly. We also show that general ordering of the passive states on the basis of their charging capabilities is not possible and even the macroscopic entities (viz. energy and entropy) are unable to order them precisely. Interestingly, for some of the passive states, the majorization criterion gives sufficient order to the charging and discharging capabilities. However, the charging capacity for the set of thermal states (for which charging is possible) is directly proportional to their temperature.



Publication Date



Open Access, Green

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