Oriented bipartite graphs and the Goldbach graph
In this paper, we study oriented bipartite graphs. In particular, we introduce “bitransitive” graphs. Several characterizations of bitransitive bitournaments are obtained. We show that bitransitive bitounaments are equivalent to acyclic bitournaments. As applications, we characterize acyclic bitournaments with Hamiltonian paths, determine the number of non-isomorphic acyclic bitournaments of a given order, and solve the graph-isomorphism problem in linear time for acyclic bitournaments. Next, we prove the well-known Caccetta-Häggkvist Conjecture for oriented bipartite graphs in some cases for which it is unsolved, in general, for oriented graphs. We also introduce the concept of undirected as well as oriented “odd-even” graphs. We characterize bipartite graphs and acyclic oriented bipartite graphs in terms of them. In fact, we show that any bipartite graph (acyclic oriented bipartite graph) can be represented by some odd-even graph (oriented odd-even graph). We obtain some conditions for connectedness of odd-even graphs. This study of odd-even graphs and their connectedness is motivated by a special family of odd-even graphs which we call “Goldbach graphs”. We show that the famous Goldbach's conjecture is equivalent to the connectedness of Goldbach graphs. Several other number theoretic conjectures (e.g., the twin prime conjecture) are related to various parameters of Goldbach graphs, motivating us to study the nature of vertex-degrees and independent sets of these graphs. Finally, we observe Hamiltonian properties of some odd-even graphs related to Goldbach graphs for a small number of vertices.
Das, Sandip; Ghosh, Prantar; Ghosh, Shamik; and Sen, Sagnik, "Oriented bipartite graphs and the Goldbach graph" (2021). Journal Articles. 1818.