SN Applied Sciences
Detecting potential issues in naturally captured images of water is a challenging task due to visual similarities between clean and polluted water, as well as causes posed by image acquisition with different camera angles and placements. This paper presents novel deep invariant texture features along with a deep network for detecting clean and polluted water images. The proposed method first divides an input image into H, S and V components to extract finer details. For each of the color spaces, the proposed approach generates two directional coherence images based on Eigen value analysis and gradient distribution, which results in enhanced images. Then the proposed method extracts scale invariant gradient orientations based on Gaussian first order derivative filters on different standard deviations to study texture of each smoothed image. To strengthen the above features, we explore the combination of Gabor-wavelet-binary pattern for extracting texture of the input water image. The proposed method integrates merits of aforementioned features and the features extracted by VGG16 deep learning model to obtain a single feature vector. Furthermore, the extracted feature is fed to a gradient boosting decision tree for water image detection. A variety of experimental results on a large dataset containing different types of clean and stagnant water images show that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of classification rate and accuracy.
Xue, Minglong; Shivakumara, Palaiahnakote; Wu, Xuerong; Lu, Tong; Pal, Umapada; Blumenstein, Michael; and Lopresti, Daniel, "Deep invariant texture features for water image classification" (2020). Journal Articles. 17.