Frailty syndrome and sarcopenia among rural older adults in West Bengal, India: a cross-sectional study

Article Type

Research Article

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Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics


Background. Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome. Sarcopenia plays an essential role in the early diagnosis and prevention of frailty syndrome. Therefore, we examined the association of frailty syndrome with sarcopenia among community-dwelling rural older adults in West Bengal. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2018 and January 2020 in 510 (230 men and 280 women) older adults aged ≥60 years who had lived for >10 years in the selected villages of Pancharul Gram Panchayat, Udaynarayanpur Block of Howrah District, West Bengal, India. Participants were assessed for frailty syndrome and sarcopenia as well as cognitive impairment, social support, history of fall, and nutritional status by a single investigator. Frailty syndrome was assessed using the modified Physical Frailty Phenotype Scale. Frailty is defined as a display of ≥3 of five physiological deficits: low weight, low gait speed, reduced muscle strength, exhaustion, and low physical activity. Sarcopenia was assessed using the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia 2014 consensus by measuring dominant hand grip strength, gait speed, and skeletal muscle mass index. Results: Of the 510 participants, 44 (8.6%) were both frail and sarcopenic, 88 (17.3%) were frail only, 16 (3.1%) were sarcopenic only, and 362 (71.0%) were non-frail and non-sarcopenic. The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 25.9%, whereas the prevalence of sarcopenia was 11.8%. Compared with non-frail participants, frail participants were six times (adjusted OR=6.42, p<0.01) more likely to be sarcopenic after adjusting for age, marital status, educational level, occupational work, cognitive impairment, social support, history of fall, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Sarcopenia affects the development of frailty syndrome.

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Open Access, Bronze

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