A geometric analysis of time series leading to information encoding and a new entropy measure

Article Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics


A time series is uniquely represented by its geometric shape, which also carries information. A time series can be modeled as the trajectory of a particle moving in a force field with one degree of freedom. The force acting on the particle shapes the trajectory of its motion, which is made up of elementary shapes of infinitesimal neighborhoods of points in the trajectory. It has been proved that an infinitesimal neighborhood of a point in a continuous time series can have at least 29 different shapes or configurations. So information can be encoded in it in at least 29 different ways. A 3-point neighborhood (the smallest) in a discrete time series can have precisely 13 different shapes or configurations. In other words, a discrete time series can be expressed as a string of 13 symbols. Across diverse real as well as simulated data sets it has been observed that 6 of them occur more frequently and the remaining 7 occur less frequently. Based on frequency distribution of 13 configurations or 13 different ways of information encoding a novel entropy measure, called semantic entropy (E), has been defined. Following notion of power in Newtonian mechanics of the moving particle whose trajectory is the time series, a notion of information power (P) has been introduced for time series. E/P turned out to be an important indicator of synchronous behavior of time series as observed in epileptic EEG signals.

First Page


Last Page




Publication Date



All Open Access, Bronze, Green

This document is currently not available here.