Open defecation in rural India, 2015-16: Levels and trends in NFHS-4
Economic and Political Weekly
The Government of India's NFHS-4 offers the best new data on open defecation in rural India to be released in over a decade. Although open defecation has become less common than it was 10 years ago, it is still highly prevalent, with more than half of rural households reporting open defecation. On average, change has been slow, even during the period of the Swachh Bharat Mission.
Coffey, Diane and Spears, Dean, "Open defecation in rural India, 2015-16: Levels and trends in NFHS-4" (2018). Journal Articles. 1446.