# Sample and Query Complexities of Some Estimation Problems

## Date of Submission

October 2023

## Date of Award

10-1-2024

## Institute Name (Publisher)

Indian Statistical Institute

## Document Type

Doctoral Thesis

## Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

## Subject Name

Computer Science

## Department

Advance Computing and Microelectronics Unit (ACMU-Kolkata)

## Supervisor

Chakraborty, Sourav (ACMU-Kolkata; ISI)

## Abstract (Summary of the Work)

Given data from some experiment, inferring information from the underlying distribution is of prime importance, and has been extensively studied. However, due to the huge size of the data, traditional methods are often no longer applicable. Thus new tools and techniques are being developed for inferring useful information from large amounts of data. This thesis makes progress in this direction. The primary goal is to design efficient randomized algorithms aka. testers that can distinguish whether a given unknown object is "close'' or "far'' from a property of interest with as few accesses as possible. This is referred to as distribution testing when the unknown object is a probability distribution, and graph property testing when it is a graph. The minimum number of samples required to decide a property in distribution testing is referred to as sample complexity, while in graph property testing, it is referred to as query complexity. In this thesis, we study several fundamental problems in distribution and graph property testing such as (i) Can one design a tolerant tester for any distribution property with only black-box access to a non-tolerant tester? (ii) Does there exist distribution properties with global structure that can be learnt efficiently? (iii) the role of adaptivity in distribution testing, and tolerant testing for (iv) graph isomorphism and (v) bipartiteness. The results of the thesis are divided into three parts. In the first part, we study the connection between the sample complexities of non-tolerant and tolerant testing of distributions and prove a tight quadratic gap for label-invariant (symmetric) properties, while providing lower bounds for non-concentrated properties. We also present an algorithm that can learn a concentrated distribution even when its support set is unknown apriori. In the second part, we investigate problems (ii) and (iii) in huge object model, where distributions are defined over n-dimensional Hamming cube and the tester obtains n-bit strings as samples. Since reading the string in its entirety may not be feasible for large n, the tester has query access to the sampled strings. We define the notion of index-invariant properties, properties that are invariant under the permutations of the indices {1,......,n} and prove that any index-invariant property whose VC-dimension is bounded has a tester whose query complexity is independent of n and depends only on VC-dimension. Moreover, the dependencies of sample and query complexities of our tester on the VC-dimension are tight. We also study the power of adaptiveness in this model and prove a tight quadratic separation between query complexities of adaptive and non-adaptive testers for index-invariant properties, compared to tight exponential separation for its non-index-invariant counterpart. In the third part, we study property testing of dense graphs and give positive answers to problems (iv) and (v). We prove that tolerant graph isomorphism testing is equivalent to the problem of estimating the Earth Mover Distance of two distributions, constructed from the graphs. Moreover, our equivalence proof is model independent. Finally we design a tester for tolerant bipartiteness testing whose query and time complexities are significantly better compared to previous works.

## Control Number

ISILib-TH

## Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

## DOI

http://dspace.isical.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10263/2146

## Recommended Citation

Sen, Sayantan Dr., "Sample and Query Complexities of Some Estimation Problems" (2024). *Doctoral Theses*. 496.

https://digitalcommons.isical.ac.in/doctoral-theses/496

## Comments

ProQuest Collection ID: https://www.proquest.com/pqdtlocal1010185/dissertations/fromDatabasesLayer?accountid=27563