Date of Submission


Date of Award


Institute Name (Publisher)

Indian Statistical Institute

Document Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Subject Name

Quantitative Economics


Economic Research Unit (ERU-Kolkata)


DasGupta, Ajit K. (ERU-Kolkata; ISI)

Abstract (Summary of the Work)

DEFINITION OF NUPTIALITYAccordi ng to the latest International Demographic Terminelogy (Grebeni k and ill, 1974), t he term 'nuptiality' is used to denote the whole subject of the formation and dissolutien of sexual uni ons, includi ng the study of marriage, consensual uni ons, separation, di vorce, widowhood etc. It is also used, in a narrower sense, as a synonym for marriage in such terms as nuptiality rates;and nuptiality probabilities, The study of nuptiality deals with the frequency of marriage, 1.e., unions between persons of opposite sexes which involve rights and obligations fixed by law and custom; with the characteriatics of persons united in marriage, and with the dissolution of such unions (United Nations, 1958).Marriage may bé considered as the focus of the process of family formation. Winh (1968) has defined marriage as a culturally approved relationship of one man and one woman (monogamy), of one man and two or more women (polygyny), or of one woman and two or more men (polyandry), in which there is cultural endorsement of sexual intercourse between the marital partners of opposite sex and generally the expectation that children will be born of the relationship. Here in this study, which has parti cular reference to Indian conditions, the term;nuptiality vill be used in the sense of the study of marriage only, due to the following reasons :(a) t he categories divorced and separated form only very insignificant proportions of the total and the married population;(b) the proportion widoved reflects mostly the mertality condition of the population as re-marri ages are assumed to be negligible;(0) consensual uni ons are practically non-existent.2. IMPORTANCE OF NUPTIALITY STUDIESIn exploring the importance of nuptiality studies in general, and for developing countries in particular, we may begin with D.V. Glass comments (1963)For demographers, there is ample reason to devote far more attention to Marriage. It is through the intervening variable of marri age that replacement indices become sociologi-cally meaningful. In the more developed societies, recent changes in the level and trend of fertili ty owe much to the changes in the amount of, and age at, marriage. The study of narital patterns and trends in less developed societies is of still greater importance.First, marital status is an element of population composition which is of considerable importance. It is a sigificant factor in population dynamies as it-affects fertili ty to a large extent. It has a direct bearing on the computation of reproduction rates. By examining the proportions single at various ages it is possible to judge whether first marri ages are more or less frequent as well as how precocious they are. As a rule, Western countries have low intensive nuptiality, i.e., high proportion of single persons aged 45 to 50, a pro portion that is very close to the proportion of tho se who never marry at all.It is obvious, says Dorn (1936),that a population with two children per married woman and with 80 percent of the women married is more fertile than a similar population with three chỉldren per married woman but in which only 50 per cent of the women are married. Nonetheless, the effect of nuptiality on other social and economie characteristics such as school attendance, labour force participation, etc., is also not totally insignificant. In fact, propertions single are very useful indicators of socioeconomic and cultural đifferences between regions, countries and between different segments of a population. To ei te a simple example, the fact that in India about 18 yer cent of males and less than 4 percent of females in the age group fifteen and above are single asagainat 53 and 45 percent respectively in Ireland learly demonatrates the socio-cultural differences exịsti ng between the two societies.


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