Date of Submission


Date of Award


Institute Name (Publisher)

Indian Statistical Institute

Document Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Subject Name

Quantitative Economics


Theoretical Statistics and Mathematics Unit (TSMU-Kolkata)


Srinivasan, T. N.

Abstract (Summary of the Work)

Tenancy in agriculture is an arrangement between the landowner and tenant in which the tenant paye to the landowner a certain mutually greed sun (or stare) of produce in return for the right to cul ti vate and appropriate the output produced on rentedend. There are different types of tenaney arrangements and often these differences relate to the form of payment of rent. Two of the more prevalent tendancy arrangements are share cropping (or cropshering) sand fixed-rent tendany, Under sh-re- cropping, the rent is a contructed percentage of the output produced on rented land while in a fixed-rent contract the rent is a certain specified amount of cash or produce, This Ä‘ifference in the forn of rental payment (a share in one and a fixed amount in the other) has an ime- dinte implication. Under share cropping, a shortfall in output (say due to bad weather or bad farming) remulta not only in a reduction in the tenant income from land, but there is also a corresponding reduction in the landlora rent, Conversely, the landlord shares in any increase in output on renteiland. In contrast, in a fixed-rent contract the rent is independent of the actual level of output that is produced on rented land, Any increase or decrease in output affects the tenant alone,In addition to these more opinion forms of tenancy arrangements there are other forms of tenancy which are also found to exist in different parts of the country, Por instance, rent is paid not in terms of output produced, but instead, it may be specified in teras of labour- services to be rendered by the ten-nt to the landlore.An essential feature of tenancy, of any form, is that the owner of the land is not cultivating the land himself. Though it is sometimes observed that the landouner does enter into an agreement with the culti- vating-tensent regarding what crops to grov etc., it still remins a feature of tenancy that not all cultivating decisions are taken by the landowners unilaterally. Sone of these decisions nay be taken by the tenant alone while others may be taken jointly by the tennant and the landowner. This is in contrast to owner-cultivation where the owner of the Iand is solely responsible for cultivation, At this point we nay emphasis one important difference between owner-cultivation (using wnge-labour) and sharecropping. As we had just notad, under the former the cultivation decisions (when to plough, what crops to grou, hou much of vnrious inputs to be upad, etc.) are the sole prerogatives of the landowner, with hired labour contributing manual labour only. In return, the labourers are paid the going wage rate uhi ch could be specified in terme of a proportion of harvested output", on the other hand, under sharecropping some of the cultivation decisions are taken by the tenant, Thus even though the fora of payment under the two systems.


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