Date of Submission


Date of Award


Institute Name (Publisher)

Indian Statistical Institute

Document Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Subject Name

Quantitative Economics


Economic Research Unit (ERU-Kolkata)


Rudhra, Ashok (ERU-Kolkata; ISI)

Abstract (Summary of the Work)

Recognising the vastness of our subject it was felt necessary to limit the scope of the thesis in the following four ways(1) Agrarian classes have been left out.(2) Intra class contradictions have been analysed to a larger extent than inter class contradictions.(3) The historical process of Glass formation and the concomitant question of class consciousness have not been dealt with.(4) No direct reference has been made to the concept of mode of production.In other words, within the broad subject area suggested by the title, scope of the thesis has been narrowed down to the following identification and analysis of contradictions which delineate Indian non agrarian classes and sections within it, in a relatively static framework. Ne now elabo- rate these four limiting aspects,That emerging elass contradioctions in the Indian agriculture is the most important among all class contradioe tions in this society is beyong doubt, Precisely because of that most of our soaial scientists interested in the class question have studied the agrarian classes more extensively than the non agrarian classes. A rigorous study of the Indian non agrarian alasses has thus become long overdue. This explains our exclusive concern with non agrarian classes.The bourgeoisie and the working class as we shall see later, form the two most important non agrarian classes. The contradictions separating these two classes are quite straight forward and Marx himself has written extensively on this subject. There is very little one may add by way of identifying new types of contradictions between these two classes. But there are some very important questions that one may ask about these two classes, in the Indian context. For example - Is 'Bourgeoisiea homogenous class Can we speak of "internal differentiation of the Indian bourgeoisie n any meaningful way Does there exist any important contra- diction between various sections of the working class That these questions are quite important is reflected in the fact that many or our social scientists do adopt one view or another on all these questions while analysing the class structure of the Indian Society. Nevertheless, these internal contradictions have not received any systematic and rigorous treatment so far. That explains the focus of this work in this aspect.The study of any particular alass and sections within it needs to be carried out at two levels. Firstly the contra- dictions that demarcate this class from other classes and the contradictions that give rise to various sections within this alass, are to be identified and analysed. Only when these contradictions have been identified and analysed, it in becomes possible to study the historical evolution of these contradictions. The present work is confined to the first level of analysis so as to give it a much sharper focus and also keep it within a manageable size, of course, history has not been ignored altogether but it has been referred only to that extent that it helps us to understand the present structure of a class.


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