Date of Submission


Date of Award


Institute Name (Publisher)

Indian Statistical Institute

Document Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Subject Name



Theoretical Statistics and Mathematics Unit (TSMU-Kolkata)


Tripathi, T. P. (TSMU-Kolkata; ISI)

Abstract (Summary of the Work)

The practice of keeping records on socio-economic aspects etc. in terms of the data from real or actual populations by the States etc. is age old. There are evidences of such practice in India even at about 500 B.C. where the King Courts/Tribe Mecds/Gromini (village Henda) used to keep the records on military force, human population, cattle population, land u se otc. The records were in the form of data on both the quantitotive ond qualitctive character- istics. It is well known thot the Grent Maghul Empire, in ladia, ol so used to keep the records in form of data an the choracteristics reloted to socio-ecanomic, militory offoirs and land ownership etc. No doubt such a practice was in force not only in India, but in mcny ct her countries, especiclily the European Ccuntries, As eorly as in 1662, Grount published his work on social-statistics, bosed on the data collected in cn arbitrary or haphazard manner. However such practice was not well-organised and it is known very little obout the methods u sed for conducting such enquiries ond they were of imited volve. With the development of ag riculture, trade, commerce ond industry, e specially after the indust rial rendls sance in Europe, t he neces sity fer such enquiries in depth ond brecdth alsc increased and the collection of doto in the form of camplete enumeration (census) on various social, economic, demographic and biologicol chorocteristics come Into proctice in the 19th century compresalon, OCR, web optimization uning a watormarked ovaluntion copy of CVISION POFCom -2- through orgonised bodies in e number of count ries. camo into existence in Indio too, where the Briti sh Government Such a practice started the oferotion of cansus orcund 1881 ond which is continuing with a periodicity of every ten yeors, so far olmost uninier rupted. Conducting of census has provided the countries - where such proctice has been in force - a trensure of varled type of data cnd helped the Governments in formulating the strategy of development etc.The expanding demand of time further made it necessary to consider the collection of data for a part of the natural population in cose of those characteristies and In those spheres (oreas) where complete enumerotion was not faasible or the data were required within short spon of time for moking certain decisions. This necessitcted the use of some kind of a sample survey oppronch (ccliec- tion of data for a small portion of the whole natural population about which some conclusions were to be drown), which storted in some countries in the last quarter of 19th Century. It is possibly about hundred years ago from today thot the practice of çonducting sample surveys came into being in many countries of the world especially in Europe. Thus use of a sample (a port) for making certain decisions or crowing conclusions about the real actual natural populations (The whole from which sample was taken) is relatively a modern development.


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