Placement of access points with minimal wastage of transmission power in an indoor environment

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Conference Article

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Eleventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems, ANTS 2017


In this paper, we address the problem of optimally placing the access points in an indoor environment so that every point in the region will be covered by at least one access point (AP) with minimal sum of total transmission power used by all the access points. Radio signals suffer significant attenuation due to partition walls and other obstacles in an indoor region. Such attenuation is particularly high in the spectrum range of millimeter waves planned for the upcoming 5G technology to meet the requirement of a huge bandwidth for ultra-dense cellular networks. Indoor signal attenuation will be different along different directions due to the varying nature of obstacles for signal propagation along those paths. We first propose a simple geometric technique to convert the region to be covered to a virtual one so that we may consider omnidirectional signal propagation from any AP with uniform attenuation in all directions and hence, two-dimensional coverage of the virtual region by circles need only be considered. Next we analyze the wastage of transmission power for different types of placement of the APs with touching and intersecting circles for the full coverage of a virtual rectangular region. We show that while covering a square region, intersecting circles provide smaller wastage of energy than the touching circles so that these minimum wastages with touching and intersecting circles are 81.4% and 20.77%, respectively in the inner bulk region, while the wastage increases to higher values to cover also the boundary region. For fully covering a square region using intersecting circles, the wastage, however, asymptotically tends to 20.77% when the size of the region becomes very high compared to the radius of the circles used for covering. We propose an algorithm to attain this placement for minimum wastage by properly adjusting the radius of the transmitting zone of each AP relative to the dimension of the square region to be covered.

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